maximiliano i de méxico biografía

A younger brother of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, Maximilian had a distinguished career as commander-in-chief of the Austrian Navy. [37] Apparently, the royal couple intended to groom Agustín as heir to the throne. With the support of the French army and a group of Conservative Party monarchists hostile to the Liberal Party administration of President Benito Juárez, Maximilian accepted the crown of Mexico on 10 April 1864.[2]. Barcelona. Archiduque de Austria y el emperador de México, un hombre cuyo ingenuo liberalismo resultó ser desigual a las intrigas internacionales que lo habían colocado en el trono y a las brutales luchas dentro de México que lo llevar… El trágico destino del emperador Maximiliano y su mujer Carlota. *, Político y héroe nacional mexicano1806/03/21 - 1872/07/18, Emperador de Austria (1848-1916) y rey de Hungría (1867-1916) 1830/08/18 - 1916/11/21, Militar y político mexicano1826/01/16 - 1902/05/22, Ingeniero y cartógrafo mexicano1833/01/21 - 1889/05/19, Presidente mexicano1804/05/23 - 1877/10/03, Militar y diplomárico mexicano1803/05/15 - 1869/03/21, Político y militar mexicanoUnknown - Unknown. Su derrota final y ejecución demostraron claramente que Méxicono aceptaría a un príncipe extranjero. Para una búsqueda más efectiva use minúsculas y tildes. [13] Most of Maximilian's day was spent in study. In this document Maximilian renounced any rights to the Austrian throne or as an Archduke of Austria. Conoce la trágica historia de Maximiliano de Habsburgo, el segundo y último emperador de México, un hombre de noble y admirable carácter que fue víctima de terribles circunstancias. Maximiliano era segundo en la línea de sucesión a la corona imperial de Austria Hungría pero renunció a ellos cuando se le ofreció el trono de México. Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria Maximilian, Archduke of Austria: Giving executer(s) a portion of gold/silver is well-established among European aristocracy since medieval time and not an act of desperation. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); [42], Maximilian issued his "Black Decree"' on 3 October 1865. Matters worsened for Maximilian after French armies withdrew from Mexico in 1866, in part due to American pressure, in part due to needing to deal with matters closer to home. Virrey de Lombardia-Venecia Nacido el 6 de julio de 1832 – Fallecido el 19 de junio de 1867. Maximilian I (Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph Maria, Spanish: Fernando Maximiliano José María de Habsburgo-Lorena; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was an Austrian archduke who reigned as the only Emperor of the Second Mexican Empire from 10 April 1864 until his execution on 19 June 1867. Fue el único monarca del Segundo Imperio Mexicano. Maximilian also invited settlers from "any country", including Austria and the other German states. The hours per week of classes steadily increased from 32 at age seven to 55 by the time he was 17. [20][19] Only in 1849 would the revolution be stamped out in Austria, with hundreds of rebels executed and thousands imprisoned. [41], Meanwhile, Maximilian invited ex-Confederates to move to Mexico in a series of settlements called the "Carlota Colony" and the New Virginia Colony, with a dozen others being considered, a plan conceived by the internationally renowned U.S. Navy oceanographer and inventor Matthew Fontaine Maury. Maximilian fought on with his army of 8,000 Mexican loyalists. [citation needed], In the wake of his death, carte-de-visite cards with photographs commemorating his execution circulated both among his followers and among those who wished to celebrate his death. That year, Napoleon III withdrew his troops in the face of Mexican resistance and U.S. opposition under the Monroe Doctrine, as well as to strengthen his forces at home to face the ever-growing Prussian military and Bismarck. "¡Que mi sangre selle las desgracias de mi nueva patria! Allí trató de mejorar la suerte de los indígenas y campesinos pobres.El 10 de abril de 1865, publicó el Estatuto provisional del Imperio mexicano. [24] In 1854, when he was only 22 years old—as a younger brother of the emperor, and thus a member of the ruling family—he was appointed as commander-in-chief of the Imperial Austrian Navy (1854–1861),[25] which he reorganized in the following years. [3] The United States, however, continued to recognize Juárez as the legal president of Mexico and saw the French invasion as a violation of the Monroe Doctrine, but was unable to intervene due to the American Civil War. the Spanish throne was inherited by the Bourbons, Knight of the Collar of the Holy Sepulchre, "Maximilian; Star Crossed Emperor of Mexico", Belgium Mourns for Dead Empress; Tragedy of Life of Charlotte, Wife of Maximilian, Is Recalled, "Homage to the Martyrs of the Second Mexican Empire", Laughlin, Eleanor A. [14] From an early age, Maximilian tried to surpass his older brother Franz Joseph in everything, attempting to prove to all that he was the better qualified of the two and thus deserving of more than second-place status. In 1854, he sailed as commander in the corvette Minerva, on an exploring expedition along the coast of Albania and Dalmatia. Carlota travelled to Europe, seeking assistance for her husband's regime in Paris and Vienna and, finally, in Rome from Pope Pius IX. [39], After the end of the American Civil War, President Andrew Johnson invoked the Monroe Doctrine and recognized the Juarez government as the legitimate government of Mexico. Other researchers consider him short-sighted in political and military affairs, and unwilling to restore democracy in Mexico even during the imminent collapse of the Second Mexican Empire. El primero de sus nombres fue en honor a su padrino y tío paterno, quien llegó a ser el rey de Hungría; mientras que el segundo honraba a su abuelo paterno, que era el rey de Baviera. Enlaces de interés: He did not accept at first, but sought to satisfy his restless desire for adventure with a botanical expedition to the tropical forests of Brazil. Harding, Bertita (1934). Although he liked Maximilian on a personal level,[46] Juárez refused to commute the sentence in view of the Mexicans who had been killed fighting against Maximilian's forces, and because he believed it was necessary to send a message that Mexico would not tolerate any government imposed by foreign powers. [31], The new emperor of Mexico landed at Veracruz on 29 May 1864,[32] and received a cold reception from the townspeople. Until his sixth birthday, he was cared for by Baroness Louise von Sturmfeder, who was his aja (then rendered "nurse", now nanny). Emperador de México [38], To the dismay of his conservative allies, Maximilian upheld several liberal policies proposed by the Juárez administration, such as land reforms, religious freedom, and extending the right to vote beyond the landholding classes. Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph von Habsburg-Lothringen, nado o 6 de xullo de 1832 en Viena e finado o 19 de xuño de 1867 en Santiago de Querétaro, foi arquiduque de Austria e príncipe de Hungría e Bohemia, mais renunciou aos seus títulos para converterse no emperador Maximiliano I de México, quen encabezou o Segundo Imperio Mexicano, entre 1863 e 1867. [21][22], Maximilian was a particularly clever boy who displayed considerable culture in his taste for the arts, and he demonstrated an early interest in science, especially botany. Su breve gobierno se caracterizó por el desastre financiero, la debilidad política y la traición. [citation needed], In his political views, Archduke Maximilian was very much influenced by the progressive ideas in vogue at the time. [34], The imperial couple chose as their seat Mexico City. This renunciation followed an extended period of negotiations between the two brothers and was agreed to by Maximilian with reluctance. [17] Nonetheless, Maximilian was very popular. Washington began supplying partisans of Juárez and his ally Porfirio Díaz by "losing" arms depots to them at El Paso del Norte at the Mexican border. The United States applied increasing diplomatic pressure to persuade Napoleon III to end French support of Maximilian and to withdraw French troops from Mexico. This plan was sabotaged by Colonel Miguel López who was bribed by the Republicans to open a gate and lead a raiding party, though with the agreement that Maximilian would be allowed to escape. [40] The prospect of an American invasion to reinstate Juárez caused a large number of Maximilian's loyal adherents to abandon his cause and leave the capital. Más nuevas del imperio. [15], In 1848, revolutions erupted across Europe. [23], He was made a lieutenant in the navy at the age of eighteen. A younger brother of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, Maximilian had a distinguished career as commander-in-chief of the Imperial Austrian Navy. [49], After his execution, Maximilian's body was embalmed and displayed in Mexico. No olvide las tildes. Fue hijo del archiduque Franz Harl y de la princesa Sofía de Baviera, quien era miembro de la Casa de Wittelsbach. [33] He had the backing of Mexican conservatives and Napoleon III, but from the very outset he found himself involved in serious difficulties, since the Liberal forces led by President Benito Juárez refused to recognize his rule. [28] On 20 October 1861 in Paris, Maximilian received a letter from Gutierrez de Estrada asking him to take the Mexican throne. Presidente de México Biografía de Maximiliano I de México. Shortly after, Austria lost control of most of its Italian possessions. Político inglés Considerado uno de los hombres más influyentes de la historia. Primer Ministro del Reino Unido: 1940-1945, 1951-1955 Partido político: Conservador, Liberal Padres: Lord Randolph Church... Archiduque de Austria y único monarca del Segundo Imperio Mexicano. [citation needed] Faithful generals such as Miguel Miramón, Leonardo Márquez, and Tomás Mejía vowed to raise an army that would challenge the invading Republicans. [52], The composer Franz Liszt included a "Marche funèbre, en mémoire de Maximilian I, empereur de Mexique" (a funeral march, in memory of Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico) among the pieces in his famous collection of piano pieces entitled Années de pèlerinage. Iturbide and his cousin were granted the title Prince de Iturbide and the style of Highness by an imperial decree of 16 September 1865, and were ranked next in line after the reigning family. [18][19] Maximilian accompanied him on campaigns to put down rebellions throughout the empire. Emperador de México –La tenacidad es la gran palanca de la ambición– Archiduque de Austria y único monarca del Segundo Imperio Mexicano. Se pensaba que el establecimiento de una monarquía, con un líder que posee una probada y verdadera línea de sangre europea, podría dar una cierta estabilidad muy necesaria a la nación desgarrada por los conflictos. [4][5] He was baptized the following day as Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph. This was crucial, as sea power had never been a priority of Austrian foreign policy, and the navy itself was relatively little known or supported by the public. In the 1939 film The Mad Empress he was played by Conrad Nagel. Maximiliano I (Viena, 1832 - Querétaro, México, 1867) Emperador de México (1864-1867). Its first article stated that: "All individuals forming a part of armed bands or bodies existing without legal authority, whether or not proclaiming a political pretext, whatever the number of those forming such band, or its organization, character, and denomination, shall be judged militarily by the courts martial. Generations are numbered by male-line descent from the first archdukes. Fernando Maximiliano José nació en un palacio ubicado en la ciudad austríaca de Viena el 6 de julio de 1832. Príncipe de la casa de Habsburgo y hermano del emperador austríaco Francisco José.Cuando aún era muy joven contrajo matrimonio con la hija de los reyes de Bélgica, la princesa Carlota Amelia. Felix Salm-Salm and his wife masterminded a plan and bribed the jailors to allow Maximilian to escape execution. Se cuenta que tuvo un romance con Concepción Sedano, “la india bonita”, esposa de su mayordomo de la Quinta en Cuernavaca. The Habsburg family had ruled the Viceroyalty of New Spain from its establishment until the Spanish throne was inherited by the Bourbons. France, together with Spain and the United Kingdom, had invaded Mexico in the winter of 1861 to pressure the Mexican government into settling its debts with the three powers after Mexico had announced a suspension on debt repayment; the Spanish and British both withdrew the following year after negotiating agreements with the Mexican government and realising the true intention of the French, while France sought to conquer the country. However, Maximilian changed his mind after the French intervention in Mexico. At the invitation of Napoleon III, after General Élie-Frédéric Forey's capture of Mexico City and a French-organized plebiscite that confirmed the proclamation of the empire, Maximilian consented to accept the crown in October 1863. ¡Viva México!" Maximilian allowed his followers to determine whether or not he abdicated. His attempts to outshine his older brother and ability to charm opened a rift with the aloof and self-contained Franz Joseph that would widen as years passed, and their close friendship in childhood would be all but forgotten. One such card featured a photograph of the shirt he wore to his execution, riddled with bullet holes. [26], On 27 July 1857, in Brussels, Archduke Maximilian married his second cousin Charlotte, the daughter of Leopold I of Belgium and Louise of Orléans. [15], The highly restrictive environment of the Austrian court was not enough to repress Maximilian's natural openness. Maximiliano de Habsburgo(1832-1867) fue un archiduque austríaco y emperador de México. Later generations are included although Austrian titles of nobility were abolished in 1919. He traveled from Trieste aboard SMS Novara, escorted by the frigates SMS Bellona (Austrian) and Thémis (French), and the Imperial yacht Phantasie led the warship procession from his palace at Miramare out to sea. "[48] Generals Miramón and Mejía standing to Maximilian's right, were killed by the same volley as the emperor, fired by the fifteen-man (twenty-one in other accounts) execution party. Maximilian then retired to Trieste, near which he built Miramare Castle. Maximilian I (Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph Maria, Spanish: Fernando Maximiliano José María de Habsburgo-Lorena; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was an Austrian archduke who reigned as the only Emperor of the Second Mexican Empire from 10 April 1864 until his execution on 19 June 1867. Su educación fue muy sofisticada tal como ocurría con todos los miembros de la casa de Austria. Maximilian never really intended to give the crown to the Iturbides because he believed that they were not of royal blood. [12] The existence of an illicit affair between Sophie and the duke, and any possibility that Maximilian was conceived from such a union, are dubious. He threw himself into this career with so much zeal that he quickly rose to high command. When he entered military service, he was trained in the Imperial Austrian Navy. La india bonita 1857-1859 Maximiliano I (6 de julio 19 de 1832-junio de 1867) fue un noble europeo invitado a México en la raíz de las desastrosas guerras y conflictos de la mitad del siglo 19. Conoce la trágica historia de Maximiliano de Habsburgo, el segundo y último emperador de México, un hombre de noble y admirable carácter que fue víctima de terribles circunstancias. Emperor Franz Joseph had decided on the need to replace the elderly soldier Joseph Radetzky von Radetz, to divert growing discontent amongst the Italian population through token liberalization, and to encourage a degree of personal loyalty to the Habsburg dynasty. Maximilian was especially interested in maritime matters and undertook many long-distance journeys (for Brazil) on the frigate Elisabeth. Following a court-martial, he was sentenced to death. Hanna, Alfred Jackson, and Kathryn Abbey Hanna. Los personajes históricos más importantes, Una de cada diez personas maneja la izquierda para la mayoría de las actividades, igual que estos zocatos célebres, Preguntas y respuestas sobre el escritor más universal de las letras españolas. Su breve gobierno se caracterizó por el desastre financiero, la debilidad política y la traición. Segundo Imperio MéxicanoEl 28 de mayo de 1864, Maximiliano de Habsburgo arribó al puerto de Veracruz en compañía de su esposa, la emperatriz Carlota, a bordo de la fragata de guerra Novara. His last words were, "I forgive everyone, and I ask everyone to forgive me. Familia Hijo del archiduque Francisco Carlos de Austria y de Sofía Guillermina de Wittelsbach, Princesa de … There was continuous fighting between the French expeditionary forces (who were supplemented by Maximilian's locally recruited imperial troops) on one side and the Mexican Republicans on the other. Early the following year, the Austrian admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff was sent to Mexico aboard SMS Novara to take the former emperor's body back to Austria. Seeking to legitimize French rule, Emperor Napoleon III invited Maximilian to establish a new pro-French Mexican monarchy. Maximilian was born on 6 July 1832 in the Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna, capital of the Austrian Empire. Busque por apellido. Era un archiduque de la Casa de Habsburgo, hermano del emperador austriaco Francisco José I y yerno del rey belga Leopoldo I.Su nombre completo fue Fernando Maximiliano José María de Austria, y también es referido en algunas fuentes como Maximiliano de Habsburgo. [16] He mocked his teachers and was often the instigator of pranks – even including his uncle, the emperor, among his victims. [6][7] His father was Archduke Franz Karl, the second surviving son of Emperor Francis I, during whose reign he was born. It is calculated that more than eleven thousand of Juarez's supporters were executed as a result of the decree, but in the end it only inflamed the Mexican resistance. May my blood, which is about to be shed, be for the good of the country. ¡Viva México!" Maximiliano I de México Maximilian ordered a wide avenue cut through the city from Chapultepec to the city center named Paseo de Chapultepec or Paseo de la Emperatriz. [29], In April 1864, Maximilian stepped down from his duties as chief of Naval Section of the Austrian Navy. FamiliaHijo del archiduque Francisco Carlos de Austria y de Sofía Guillermina de Wittelsbach, Princesa de Baviera. Maximilian and Miramón died almost immediately, the emperor calling out the single word hombre, but Mejía's death was a more extended one. Maximiliano de Habsburgo - 3 Museos Veracruz was a liberal town, and the liberal voters were opposed to having Maximilian on the throne. Biografía de Maximiliano I de México. Casa Real Miguel de Grecia (2000). [28] On 9 April 1864 Maximilian met with his brother Emperor Francis Joseph at Miramar to sign a "Family Pact". In Conversations: An Online Journal of the Center for the Study of Material and Visual Cultures of Religion (2016). Benito Juárez Francfort del Meno: Estudios interdisciplinarios acerca de Carlota de México. En éste se asentaba que el emperador gobernaría a través de los siguientes ministerios: de la Casa Imperial; de Estado; de Negocios Extranjeros y Marina; de Gobernación; de Justicia; de Instrucción Pública y Cultos; de Guerra; de Fomento; y, finalmente, el de Hacienda.Obras suyas son el Paseo de la Reforma y el Alcázar del Castillo de Chapultepec. Like Archduke Friedrich (1821–1847) before him, Maximilian had a keen personal interest in the fleet, and with him the Austrian naval force gained an influential supporter from the ranks of the imperial family. Object Narrative. Su derrota final y ejecución demostraron claramente que México no aceptaría a un príncipe extranjero. pp. Her efforts failed, and she suffered a deep emotional collapse and never went back to Mexico. Withdrawing, in February 1867, to Santiago de Querétaro, he sustained a siege for several weeks, but on 11 May resolved to attempt an escape through the enemy lines. 10 de abril de 1864 - 15 de mayo de 1867 Llegó después a la capital apoyado por los conservadores, quienes querían ostentar un régimen imperial que le devolviera el poder a la Iglesia. Coronación He spoke only in Spanish and gave each of his executioners a gold coin not to shoot him in the head so that his mother could see his face. "Carte-de-visite Photograph of Maximilian von Habsburg's Execution Shirt". Casa Real: Habsburgo-Lorena Cónyuge: Carlota de Bélgica (m. 1857–1867) Hijos: Agustín y Salvador (adoptados), nietos de Agustín de Iturbide, primer emperador mexicano Nombre: Maximiliano de Habsburgo - Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph María von Habsburg-Lothringen doi:10.22332/con.obj.2016.1, "En mémoire de Maximilien I – Marche funèbre, S162d (Liszt) – from CDA67414/7 – Hyperion Records – MP3 and Lossless downloads", Hof- und Staats-Handbuch der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie, "Chevaliers de la Toisón d'Or – Knights of the Golden Fleece", The Present Condition of Mexico: Message from the President of the United States in Answer to Resolution of the House of the 3d of March Last, Transmitting Report from the Department of State Regarding the Present Condition of Mexico, Commander-in-Chief of the Austro-Hungarian Naval Fleet, Maximilian Franz, Archbishop-Elector of Cologne,, People executed by Mexico by firing squad, Monarchs imprisoned and detained during war, Grand Crosses of the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary, Recipients of the House Order of Fidelity, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Zähringer Lion, Recipients of the Order of the Netherlands Lion, Grand Crosses of the Order of the Tower and Sword, Recipients of the Order of the Black Eagle, Grand Crosses of the Order of the Red Eagle, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Joseph, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2019, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1832–1864: His Imperial and Royal Highness Archduke and Prince Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria, Prince of Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia, 1864–1867: His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Mexico. No use símbolos ni comillas. [30] They received a blessing from Pope Pius IX, and Queen Victoria ordered the Gibraltar garrison to fire a salute for Maximilian's passing ship. The royal couple made plans to be crowned at the Catedral Metropolitana, but due to the constant instability of the regime, the coronation was never carried out. "¡Que mi sangre selle las desgracias de mi nueva patria! Si tiene dudas en cuanto al nombre o apellidos use las primeras letras, ejemplo. Viva Mexico, viva la independencia! Maximiliano I de México nació el 6 de julio de 1832 en el palacio de Schönbrunn, cerca de Viena, Austria. In theater, he appeared in the play Juarez and Maximilian by Franz Werfel, which was presented at Berlin in 1924, directed by Max Reinhardt. [9] Intelligent, ambitious and strong-willed, Sophie had little in common with her husband, whom historian Richard O'Conner characterized as "an amiably dim fellow whose main interest in life was consuming bowls of dumplings drenched in gravy". In the Mexican telenovela El Vuelo del Águila, Maximilian was portrayed by Mexican actor Mario Iván Martínez. La Emperatriz del Adiós. Maximilian was considered to have more potential legitimacy than other royal figures, and was unlikely to ever rule in Europe due to his elder brother. [53], The crown jewels of the Second Mexican Empire are on display at the Schatzkammer Museum in the Hofburg Palace in Vienna. The first name honored his godfather and paternal uncle, Emperor Ferdinand I, and the second honored his maternal grandfather, Maximilian I Joseph, King of Bavaria. He also initiated a large-scale scientific expedition (1857–1859) during which the frigate SMS Novara became the first Austrian warship to circumnavigate the globe. [27], In 1859, Maximilian was first approached by Mexican monarchists—members of the Mexican nobility, led by José Pablo Martínez del Río—with a proposal to become the emperor of Mexico. [citation needed], Articles related to Maximilian I of Mexico. Maximiliano de Habsburgo (1832-1867) fue un archiduque austríaco y emperador de México. Abandonado por estos y por Napoleón III fue incapaz de sostenerse.EjecuciónSe rindió en Querétaro al General Mariano Escobedo y fue capturado y fusilado en el Cerro de las Campanas junto a los conservadores Miguel Miramón y Tomás Mejía el 19 de junio de 1867. [47] The sentence was carried out in the Cerro de las Campanas at 6:40 a.m. on the morning of 19 June 1867, when Maximilian, along with Generals Miramón and Mejía, was executed by a firing squad. Carlota en México. Maximilian was thus a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, a female-line cadet branch of the House of Habsburg. As commander-in-chief, Maximilian carried out many reforms to modernise the naval forces, and was instrumental in creating the naval port at Trieste and Pola (now Pula), as well as the battle fleet with which Admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff would later secure his victories. Many of the crowned heads of Europe and other prominent figures (including the eminent liberals Victor Hugo and Giuseppe Garibaldi) sent telegrams and letters to Mexico pleading desperately for the Emperor's life to be spared. [50], Maximilian has been praised by some historians for his liberal reforms, genuine desire to help the people of Mexico, refusal to desert his loyal followers, and personal bravery during the siege of Querétaro. After arriving in Trieste, the coffin was taken to Vienna and placed within the Imperial Crypt, on 18 January 1868, where it can be viewed today. 10 de abril de 1864 However, Maximilian would not go through with the plan because he felt that shaving his beard to avoid recognition would ruin his dignity if he were to be recaptured. [38] It was all a charade directed at his brother Archduke Karl Ludwig of Austria, as Maximilian explained himself: either Karl would give him one of his sons as an heir, or else he would bequeath everything to the Iturbide children. Las mentes más grandes de la historia enlazadas a sus biografías. 27–40. This page was last edited on 24 October 2020, at 20:16. Maximiliano I de México fue el segundo Emperador de México, nacido en Viena con el título de Archiduque de Austria por su relación con la Casa de Habsburgo. Esta historia nunca pudo ser comprobada. They lived in Milan, the capital of Lombardy-Venetia, from 1857 until 1859, when Emperor Franz Joseph, angered by his brother's liberal policies, dismissed him.

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